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domestic-hardwood

Yellow-Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)

Yellow-Poplar is a domestic hardwood

Location

Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) is also known as poplar, tulip-poplar, and tulipwood. Sapwood from yellowpoplar is sometimes called white poplar or whitewood. Yellow-poplar grows from Connecticut and New York southward to Florida and westward to Missouri. The greatest commercial production of yellow-poplar lumber is in the South and Southeast.

Characteristics

Yellow-poplar sapwood is white and frequently several centimeters wide. The heartwood is yellowish brown, sometimes streaked with purple, green, black, blue, or red. These colorations do not affect the physical properties of the wood. The wood is generally straight grained and comparatively uniform in texture. Slow-grown wood is moderately light in weight and moderately low in bending strength, moderately soft, and moderately low in shock resistance. The wood has moderately high shrinkage when dried from a green condition, but it is not difficult to dry and is stable after drying. Much of the second-growth wood is heavier, harder, and stronger than that of older trees that have grown more slowly.

Primary Uses

The lumber is used primarily for furniture, interior moulding, siding, cabinets, musical instruments, and structural components. Boxes, pallets, and crates are made from lowergrade stock. Yellow-poplar is also made into plywood for paneling, furniture, piano cases, and various other special products.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

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domestic-hardwood

Willow, Black (Salix nigra)

Willow, Black is a domestic hardwood

Location

Black willow (Salix nigra) is the most important of the many willows that grow in the United States. It is the only willow marketed under its own name. Most black willow comes from the Mississippi Valley, from Louisiana to southern Missouri and Illinois.

Characteristics

The heartwood of black willow is grayish brown or light reddish brown and frequently contains darker streaks. The sapwood is whitish to creamy yellow. The wood is uniform in texture, with somewhat interlocked grain, and light in weight. It has exceedingly low strength as a beam or post, is moderately soft, and is moderately high in shock resistance. It has moderately high shrinkage.

Primary Uses

Black willow is principally cut into lumber. Small amounts are used for slack cooperage, veneer, excelsior, charcoal, pulpwood, artificial limbs, and fence posts. The lumber is remanufactured principally into boxes, pallets, crates, caskets, and furniture.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-hardwood

Walnut, Black (Juglans nigra)

Walnut, Black is a domestic hardwood

Location

Black walnut (Juglans nigra), also known as American black walnut, ranges from Vermont to the Great Plains and southward into Louisiana and Texas. About three-quarters of walnut wood is grown in the Central States.

Characteristics

The heartwood of black walnut varies from light to dark brown; the sapwood is nearly white and up to 8 cm (3 in.) wide in open-grown trees. Black walnut is normally straight grained, easily worked with tools, and stable in use. It is heavy, hard, strong, and stiff, and has good resistance to shock. Black walnut is well suited for natural finishes.

Primary Uses

Because of its good properties and interesting grain pattern, black walnut is much valued for furniture, architectural woodwork, and decorative panels. Other important uses are gunstocks, cabinets, and interior woodwork.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

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domestic-hardwood

Tupelo (Nyssa)

Tupelo is a domestic hardwood

Location

The tupelo group includes water (Nyssa aquatica), black (N. sylvatica), swamp (N. sylvatica var. biflora), and Ogeechee (N. ogeche) tupelo. Water tupelo is also known as tupelo gum, swamp tupelo, and sourgum; black tupelo, as blackgum and sourgum; swamp tupelo, as swamp blackgum, blackgum, and sourgum; and Ogeechee tupelo, as sour tupelo, gopher plum, and Ogeechee plum. All except black tupelo grow principally in the southeastern United States. Black tupelo grows in the eastern United States from Maine to Texas and Missouri. About two-thirds of the production of tupelo lumber is from Southern States.

Characteristics

Wood of the different tupelo species is quite similar in appearance and properties. The heartwood is light brownish gray and merges gradually into the lighter-colored sapwood, which is generally many centimeters wide. The wood has fine, uniform texture and interlocked grain. Tupelo wood is moderately heavy, moderately strong, moderately hard and stiff, and moderately high in shock resistance. Buttresses of trees growing in swamps or flooded areas contain wood that is much lighter in weight than that from upper portions of the same trees. Because of interlocked grain, tupelo lumber requires care in drying.

Primary Uses

Tupelo is cut principally for lumber, veneer, pulpwood, and some railroad crossties and slack cooperage. Lumber goes into boxes, pallets, crates, baskets, and furniture.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-hardwood

Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus)

Tanoak is a domestic hardwood

Location

Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) has recently gained some commercial value, primarily in California and Oregon. It is also known as tanbark-oak because high-grade tannin was once obtained from the bark in commercial quantities. This species is found in southwestern Oregon and south to Southern California, mostly near the coast but also in the Sierra Nevadas.

Characteristics

Sapwood of tanoak is light reddish brown when first cut and turns darker with age to become almost indistinguishable from heartwood, which also ages to dark reddish brown. The wood is heavy and hard; except for compression perpendicular to grain, the wood has roughly the same strength properties as those of eastern white oak. Tanoak has higher shrinkage during drying than does white oak, and it has a tendency to collapse during drying. Tanoak is quite susceptible to decay, but the sapwood takes preservatives easily. Tanoak has straight grain, machines and glues well, and takes stains readily.

Primary Uses

Because of its hardness and abrasion resistance, tanoak is excellent for flooring in homes or commercial buildings. It is also suitable for industrial applications such as truck flooring. Tanoak treated with preservative has been used for railroad crossties. The wood has been manufactured into baseball bats with good results, and it is also suitable for veneer, both decorative and industrial, and for high quality furniture.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-hardwood

Sycamore, American (Platanus occidentalis)

Sycamore, American is a domestic hardwood

Location

American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) is known as sycamore and sometimes as buttonwood, buttonball-tree, and in the United Kingdom, planetree. Sycamore grows from Maine to Nebraska, southward to Texas, and eastward to Florida.

Characteristics

The heartwood of sycamore is reddish brown; the sapwood is lighter in color and from 4 to 8 cm (1-1/2 to 3 in.) wide. The wood has a fine texture and interlocked grain. It has high shrinkage in drying; is moderately heavy, moderately hard, moderately stiff, and moderately strong; and has good resistance to shock.

Primary Uses

Sycamore is used principally for lumber, veneer, railroad crossties, slack cooperage, fence posts, and fuel. The lumber is used for furniture, boxes (particularly small food containers), pallets, flooring, handles, and butcher blocks. Veneer is used for fruit and vegetable baskets and some decorative panels and door skins.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-hardwood

Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua)

Sweetgum is a domestic hardwood

Location

Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) grows from southwestern Connecticut westward into Missouri and southward to the Gulf Coast. Almost all lumber is produced in the Southern and South Atlantic States.

Characteristics

The lumber from sweetgum is usually marked as sap gum (the light-colored sapwood) or redgum (the reddish-brown heartwood). Sweetgum often has a form of cross grain called interlocked grain, and it must be dried slowly. When quartersawn, interlocked grain produces a ribbon-type stripe that is desirable for interior woodwork and furniture. The wood is moderately heavy and hard. It is moderately strong, moderately stiff, and moderately high in shock resistance.

Primary Uses

Sweetgum is used principally for lumber, veneer, plywood, slack cooperage, railroad crossties, fuel, pulpwood, boxes and crates, furniture, interior moulding, and millwork.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-hardwood

Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)

Sassafras is a domestic hardwood

Location

Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) ranges through most of the eastern half of the United States, from southeastern Iowa and eastern Texas eastward.

Characteristics

Sassafras is easily confused with black ash, which it resembles in color, grain, and texture. Sapwood is light yellow, and heartwood varies from dull grayish brown to dark brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge. Freshly cut surfaces have the characteristic odor of sassafras. The wood is moderately heavy, moderately hard, moderately weak in bending and endwise compression, quite high in shock resistance, and resistant to decay.

Primary Uses

Sassafras was highly prized by the Indians for dugout canoes, and some sassafras lumber is still used for small boats. Locally, sassafras is used for fence posts and rails and for general millwork.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-hardwood

Oak, White Group (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. stellata, Q. lyrata, Q. michauxii, Q. macrocarpa, Q. muehlenbergii, Q. bicolor, Q. virginiana)

Oak, White Group is a domestic hardwood

Location

White oak lumber comes chiefly from the South, South Atlantic, and Central States, including the southern Appalachian area. Principal species are white (Quercus alba), chestnut (Q. prinus), post (Q. stellata), overcup (Q. lyrata), swamp chestnut (Q. michauxii), bur (Q. macrocarpa), chinkapin (Q. muehlenbergii), swamp white (Q. bicolor), and live (Q. virginiana) oak.

Characteristics

The sapwood of the white oaks is nearly white and roughly 2 to 5 cm or more (1 to 2 in. or more) wide. The heartwood is generally grayish brown. Heartwood pores are usually plugged with tyloses, which tend to make the wood impenetrable by liquids. Consequently, most white oaks are suitable for tight cooperage. Many heartwood pores of chestnut oak lack tyloses. The wood of white oak is heavy, averaging somewhat greater in weight than red oak wood. The heartwood has good decay resistance.

Primary Uses

White oaks are usually cut into lumber, railroad crossties, cooperage, mine timbers, fence posts, veneer, fuelwood, and many other products. High-quality white oak is especially sought for tight cooperage. Live oak is considerably heavier and stronger than the other oaks, and it was formerly used extensively for ship timbers. An important use of white oak is for planking and bent parts of ships and boats; heartwood is often specified because of its decay resistance. White oak is also used for furniture, flooring, pallets, agricultural implements, railroad cars, truck floors, furniture, doors, and millwork.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-hardwood

Oak, Red Group (Quercus rubra, Q. coccinea, Q. shumardii, Q. palustris, Q. nuttallii, Q. velutina, Q. falcata, Q. falcata var. pagodaefolia, Q. nigra, Q. laurifolia, Q. phellos)

Oak, Red Group is a domestic hardwood

Location

Most red oak comes from the Eastern States. The principal species are northern red (Quercus rubra), scarlet (Q. coccinea), Shumard (Q. shumardii), pin (Q. palustris), Nuttall (Q. nuttallii), black (Q. velutina), southern red (Q. falcata), cherrybark (Q. falcata var. pagodaefolia), water (Q. nigra), laurel (Q. laurifolia), and willow (Q. phellos) oak. The sapwood is nearly white and roughly 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in.) wide. The heartwood is brown with a tinge of red. Sawn lumber of the red oak group cannot be separated by species on the basis of wood characteristics alone.

Characteristics

Red oak lumber can be separated from white oak by the size and arrangement of pores in latewood and because it generally lacks tyloses in the pores. The open pores of red oak make this species group unsuitable for tight cooperage, unless the barrels are lined with sealer or plastic. Quartersawn lumber of the oaks is distinguished by the broad and conspicuous rays. Wood of the red oaks is heavy. Rapidly grown second-growth wood is generally harder and tougher than finer textured old-growth wood. The red oaks have fairly high shrinkage in drying.

Primary Uses

The red oaks are primarily cut into lumber, railroad crossties, mine timbers, fence posts, veneer, pulpwood, and fuelwood. Ties, mine timbers, and fence posts require preservative treatment for satisfactory service. Red oak lumber is remanufactured into flooring, furniture, general millwork, boxes, pallets and crates, agricultural implements, caskets, wooden ware, and handles. It is also used in railroad cars and boats.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.