Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Western White (Pinus monticola)

Pine, Western White is a domestic softwood

Location

Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is also known as Idaho white pine or white pine. About four-fifths of the wood for lumber from this species is from Idaho and Washington; small amounts are cut in Montana and Oregon.

Characteristics

The heartwood of western white pine is cream colored to light reddish brown and darkens on exposure to air. The sapwood is yellowish white and generally from 2 to 8 cm (1 to 3 in.) wide. The wood is straight grained, easy to work, easily kiln-dried, and stable after drying. This species is moderately lightweight, moderately low in strength, moderately soft, moderately stiff, and moderately low in shock resistance and has moderately high shrinkage.

Primary Uses

Practically all western white pine is sawn into lumber, which is used mainly for building construction, matches, boxes, patterns, and millwork products, such as sashes and door frames. In building construction, lower-grade boards are used for sheathing, knotty paneling, and subflooring. High-grade material is made into siding of various kinds, exterior and interior woodwork, and millwork. Western white pine has practically the same uses as eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana).

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Virginia (Pinus virginiana)

Pine, Virginia is a domestic softwood

Location

Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), also known as Jersey and scrub pine, grows from New Jersey and Virginia throughout the Appalachian region to Georgia and the Ohio Valley. It is classified as a minor species in the grading rules for the Southern Pine species group.

Characteristics

The heartwood is orange, and the sapwood is nearly white and relatively wide. The wood is moderately heavy, moderately strong, moderately hard, and moderately stiff and has moderately high shrinkage and high shock resistance.

Primary Uses

Virginia pine is used for lumber, railroad crossties, mine timbers, and pulpwood.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Sugar (Pinus lambertiana)

Pine, Sugar is a domestic softwood

Location

Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), the world’s largest species of pine, is sometimes called California sugar pine. Most sugar pine lumber grows in California and southwestern Oregon.

Characteristics

The heartwood of sugar pine is buff or light brown, sometimes tinged with red. The sapwood is creamy white. The wood is straight grained, fairly uniform in texture, and easy to work with tools. It has very low shrinkage, is readily dried without warping or checking, and is dimensionally stable. Sugar pine is lightweight, moderately low in strength, moderately soft, low in shock resistance, and low in stiffness.

Primary Uses

Sugar pine is used almost exclusively for lumber products. The largest volume is used for boxes and crates, sashes, doors, frames, blinds, general millwork, building construction, and foundry patterns. Like eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), sugar pine is suitable for use in nearly every part of a house because of the ease with which it can be cut, its dimensional stability, and its good nailing properties.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Spruce (Pinus glabra)

Pine, Spruce is a domestic softwood

Location

Spruce pine (Pinus glabra), also known as cedar, poor, Walter, and bottom white pine, is classified as a minor species in the Southern Pine species group. Spruce pine grows most commonly on low moist lands of the coastal regions of southeastern South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and northern and northwestern Florida.

Characteristics

The heartwood of spruce pine is light brown, and the wide sapwood is nearly white. Spruce pine wood is lower in most strength values than the wood of the major Southern Pine species group. Spruce pine compares favorably with the western true firs in important bending properties, crushing strength (perpendicular and parallel to grain), and hardness. It is similar to denser species such as coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in shear parallel to grain.

Primary Uses

In the past, spruce pine was principally used locally for lumber, pulpwood, and fuelwood. The lumber reportedly was used for sashes, doors, and interior woodwork because of its low specific gravity and similarity of earlywood and latewood. In recent years, spruce pine has been used for plywood.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Southern

Pine, Southern is a domestic softwood

Location

A number of species are included in the group marketed as Southern Pine lumber. The four major Southern Pine species and their growth ranges are as follows: (a) longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), eastern North Carolina southward into Florida and westward into eastern Texas; (b) shortleaf pine (P. echinata), southeastern New York and New Jersey southward to northern Florida and westward into eastern Texas and Oklahoma; (c) loblolly pine (P. taeda), Maryland southward through the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont Plateau into Florida and westward into eastern Texas; (d) slash pine (P. elliottii), Florida and southern South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana east of the Mississippi River. Lumber from these four species is classified as Southern Pine by the grading standards of the industry. These standards also classify lumber produced from the longleaf and slash pine species as longleaf pine if the lumber conforms to the growth-ring and latewood requirements of such standards. Southern Pine lumber is produced principally in the Southern and South Atlantic States. Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Louisiana lead in Southern Pine lumber production.

Characteristics

The wood of these southern pines is quite similar in appearance. Sapwood is yellowish white and heartwood, reddish brown. The sapwood is usually wide in second-growth stands. The heartwood begins to form when the tree is about 20 years old. In old, slow-growth trees, sapwood may be only 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in.) wide. Longleaf and slash pine are classified as heavy, strong, stiff, hard, and moderately high in shock resistance. Shortleaf and loblolly pine are usually somewhat lighter in weight than is longleaf. All the southern pines have moderately high shrinkage but are dimensionally stable when properly dried. To obtain heavy, strong wood of the southern pines for structural purposes, a density rule has been written that specifies a certain percentage of latewood and growth rates for structural timbers.

Primary Uses

The denser and higher strength southern pines are extensively used in the form of stringers in construction of factories, warehouses, bridges, trestles, and docks, and also for roof trusses, beams, posts, joists, and piles. Lumber of lower density and strength is also used for building material, such as interior woodwork, sheathing, and subflooring, as well as boxes, pallets, and crates. Southern Pine is used also for tight and slack cooperage. When used for railroad crossties, piles, poles, mine timbers, and exterior decking, it is usually treated with preservatives. The manufacture of structuralgrade plywood from Southern Pine is a major wood-using industry, as is the production of preservative-treated lumber.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Red (Pinus resinosa)

Pine, Red is a domestic softwood

Location

Red pine (Pinus resinosa) is frequently called Norway pine and occasionally known as hard pine and pitch pine. This species grows in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and the Great Lake States

Characteristics

The heartwood of red pine varies from pale red to reddish brown. The sapwood is nearly white with a yellowish tinge and is generally from 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in.) wide. The wood resembles the lighter weight wood of the Southern Pine species group. Latewood is distinct in the growth rings. Red pine is moderately heavy, moderately strong and stiff, moderately soft, and moderately high in shock resistance. It is generally straight grained, not as uniform in texture as eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), and somewhat resinous.

Primary Uses

The wood has moderately high shrinkage, but it is not difficult to dry and is dimensionally stable when dried. Red pine is used principally for lumber, cabin logs, and pulpwood, and to a lesser extent for piles, poles, posts, and fuel. The lumber is used for many of the same purposes as for eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). Red pine lumber is used primarily for building construction, including treated lumber for decking, siding, flooring, sashes, doors, general millwork, and boxes, pallets, and crates.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa)

Pine, Ponderosa is a domestic softwood

Location

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is also known as ponderosa, western soft, western yellow, bull, and blackjack pine. Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), which grows in close association with ponderosa pine in California and Oregon, is usually marketed with ponderosa pine and sold under that name. Major ponderosa pine producing areas are in Oregon, Washington, and California . Other important producing areas are in Idaho and Montana; lesser amounts come from the southern Rocky Mountain region, the Black Hills of South Dakota, and Wyoming.

Characteristics

The heartwood of ponderosa pine is light reddish brown, and the wide sapwood is nearly white to pale yellow. The wood of the outer portions of ponderosa pine of sawtimber size is generally moderately light in weight, moderately low in strength, moderately soft, moderately stiff, and moderately low in shock resistance. It is generally straight grained and has moderately low shrinkage. It is quite uniform in texture and has little tendency to warp and twist.

Primary Uses

Ponderosa pine is used mainly for lumber and to a lesser extent for piles, poles, posts, mine timbers, veneer, and railroad crossties. The clear wood is used for sashes, doors, blinds, moulding, paneling, interior woodwork, and built-in cases and cabinets. Low-grade lumber is used for boxes and crates. Much intermediate- or low-grade lumber is used for sheathing, subflooring, and roof boards. Knotty ponderosa pine is used for interior woodwork.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Pond (Pinus serotina)

Pine, Pond is a domestic softwood

Location

Pond pine (Pinus serotina) grows in the coastal region from New Jersey to Florida. It occurs in small groups or singly, mixed with other pines on low flats.

Characteristics

Sapwood of pond pine is wide and pale yellow; heartwood is dark orange. The wood is heavy, coarse grained, and resinous. Shrinkage is moderately high. The wood is moderately strong, stiff, moderately hard, and moderately high in shock resistance.

Primary Uses

Pond pine is used for general construction, railway crossties, posts, and poles. The lumber of this species is also graded as a minor species in grading rules for the Southern Pine species group.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Pitch (Pinus rigid)

Pine, Pitch is a domestic softwood

Location

Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) grows from Maine along the mountains to eastern Tennessee and northern Georgia.

Characteristics

The heartwood is brownish red and resinous; the sapwood is wide and light yellow. The wood of pitch pine is moderately heavy to heavy, moderately strong, stiff, and hard, and moderately high in shock resistance. Shrinkage ranges from moderately low to moderately high.

Primary Uses

Pitch pine is used for lumber, fuel, and pulpwood. The lumber is classified as a minor species in grading rules for the Southern Pine species group.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.

Categories
domestic-softwood

Pine, Lodgepole (Pinus contorta)

Pine, Lodgepole is a domestic softwood

Location

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), also known as knotty, black, and spruce pine, grows in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast regions as far northward as Alaska. Wood for lumber and other products is produced primarily in the central Rocky Mountain States; other producing regions are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

Characteristics

The heartwood of lodgepole pine varies from light yellow to light yellow-brown. The sapwood is yellow or nearly white. The wood is generally straight grained with narrow growth rings. The wood is moderately lightweight, is fairly easy to work, and has moderately high shrinkage. It is moderately low in strength, moderately soft, moderately stiff, and moderately low in shock resistance.

Primary Uses

Lodgepole pine is used for lumber, mine timbers, railroad crossties, and poles. Less important uses include posts and fuel. Lodgepole pine is being used increasingly for framing, siding, millwork, flooring, and cabin logs.

*Much of the base wood information presented here is made available by the USDA FPL FS. If you are interested in a much more technical description of wood properties, I encourage you to visit the source.